At an amazing altitude of 1200 metres, Raul Perez oversees the viticulture and vinification of this stunning, natural microclimate, farmed using techniques that do not involve any treatments or additives.
Although unusual for a great bodega of Rioja to own vineyards, La Rioja Alta owns 360ha from which they source top-quality grapes, resulting in excellent fruit and richness throughout their wines.
Many people don't realise that there are red wines from Vinho Verde, amphora aged whites and medieval-style field blends produced by Aphros winery, a revived estate held by the family since the 17th century.
Founded by Barbara Fores more than 100 years ago, Pili Sanmartin Ferrer (sixth generation) took over the estate in 2014, and promotes a dialogue of wine with the arts, landscape and the everyday order of things.
One of the few Spanish producers who are members of La Renaissance des Appellations, the biodynamic association led by Nicolas Joly (La Coulee de Serrant) with strict quality criteria for its affiliates.
One of the great revolutionaries pushing for modernity in Rioja, Miguel Angel de Gregorio, is behind Finca Allende. A staunch defender of terroir, his idea was to regain the region's essence.
It is often impossible to reconcile the flavours of some of Barranco Oscuro's wines with the more usual characteristics of the grapes they are made from, such is the influence of the environment.